PhD Comprehensive Reading List for NT

Selections from Literature Pertinent to the New Testament Period

The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition

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Apostolic Fathers

Bibliography for New Testament Exams (Graduate Program in Religion, Duke University)


  • Aune, David E. The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Library of Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987.
  • Bauer, Walter. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity. 1934. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971.
  • Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Hays, Richard B. The Moral Vision of the New Testament: Community, Cross, New Creation. A Contemporary Introduction to New Testament Ethics. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997.
  • Hurtado, Larry W. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Grand Rapids/Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2003.
  • Kümmel, Werner Georg. The New Testament: The History of the Investigation of Its Problems. Nashville/New York: Abingdon Press, 1972.
  • Moore, S. D. Literary Criticism and the Gospels: The Theoretical Challenge. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
  • Robinson, James M., and Helmut Koester. Trajectories Through Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971.
  • Rowland, Christopher. Christian Origins: An Account of the Setting and Character of the Most Important Messianic Sect of Judaism. 2nd ed. London: SPCK, 2002.
  • Schussler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins. New York: Crossroad, 1983.
  • Smith, Jonathan Z. Drudgery Divine: On the Comparison of Early Christianities and the Religions of Late Antiquity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Historical Jesus

  • ———. Resurrecting Jesus: The Earliest Christian Tradition and Its Interpreters. New York/London: T&T Clark, 2005.
  • Braaten, Carl E., and Roy A. Harrisville, eds. The Historical Jesus and the Kerygmatic Christ:
  • Essays on the New Quest of the Historical Jesus. New York: Abingdon Press, 1964. Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. SanFrancisco: Harper, 1991.
  • Dodd, Charles Harold. The Parables of the Kingdom. 1935. Glasgow: Collins, 1961.
  • Dunn, James D. G. Jesus Remembered. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
  • Harvey, Anthony E. Jesus and the Constraints of History. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.
  • Klausner, Joseph. Jesus of Nazareth: His Life, Times, and Teaching. 1925. New York: Macmillan, 1929.
  • Reimarus, Hermann Samuel. Fragments. 1779. Scholars Press Reprints and Translations Series. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1985.
  • Strauss, David Friedrich. The Life of Jesus Critically Examined. 1840. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972.

Synoptic Gospels: Mark

  • Fowler, Robert. “The History of Reading Mark.” Pp. 228-61 in Let the Reader Understand: Reader-Response Criticism and the Gospel of Mark. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.
  • Marxsen, Willi. Mark the Evangelist. Nashville: Abingdon, 1969.
  • Telford, William, ed. The Interpretation of Mark: A History of Development and Issues. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1995.
  • Tolbert, Mary Ann. Sowing the Gospel: Mark’s World in Literary-Historical Perspective. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989.
  • Tuckett, Christopher M., ed. The Messianic Secret. IRT 1. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.
  • Wrede, William. The Messianic Secret. 1901. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 1971.

Synoptic Gospels: Matthew

  • Allison, Dale C. The New Moses: A Matthean Typology. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1993.
  • Bornkamm, Günther, Gerhard Barth, and Heinz Joachim Held. Tradition and Interpretation in Matthew. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963.
  • Carter, Warren. Matthew and the Margins: A Sociopolitical and Religious Reading. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.
  • Goulder, Michael. Midrash and Lection in Matthew. London: SPCK, 1974.
  • Luz, Ulrich. The Theology of the Gospel of Matthew. New Testament Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Saldarini, Anthony J. Matthew’s Christian-Jewish Community. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
  • Stanton, Graham N. A Gospel for a New People: Studies in Matthew. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1992.
  • Stendahl, Krister. The School of St. Matthew and Its Use of the Old Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968.


  • Bovon, Francois. Luke the Theologian: Thirty-Three Years of Research (1950-1983). PTMS 12. Allison Park PA: Pickwick, 1987.
  • Cadbury, Henry J. The Making of Luke-Acts. London: Macmillan, 1927.
  • Conzelmann, Hans. The Theology of St. Luke. 1953. New York: Harper & Row, 1961.
  • Jackson, F. J. Foakes, and Kirsopp Lake, eds. The Beginnings of Christianity. 5 Vols. London: Macmillan, 1920-33. (Selected Essays)
  • Keck, Leander E., and J. Louis Martyn. Studies in Luke-Acts: Essays Presented in Honor of Paul Schubert. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1966.

Johannine Literature

  • Ashton, J. Understanding the Fourth Gospel. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York: Paulist, 1979.
  • Culpepper, R. Alan. Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Study in Literary Design. Foundations and Facets: New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.
  • Käsemann, Ernst. Jesu letzter Wille nach Johannes 17. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1966.
  • Martyn, J. Louis. History and Theology in the Fourth Gospel. 3rd ed. Louisville/London: Westminster John Knox, 2003.
  • Meeks, W. A. “The Man from Heaven in Johannine Sectarianism.” JBL 91 (1972): 44-72.
  • Smith, D. Moody. John Among the Gospels: The Relationship in Twentieth-Century Research. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.
  • ———. The Theology of the Gospel of John. New Testament Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Pauline Literature

  • Beker, J. Christiaan. Paul the Apostle: The Triumph of God in Life and Thought. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980.
  • Boyarin, Daniel. A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity. Contraversions 1. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Davies, W. D. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. New York/Evanston: Harper & Row, 1948.
  • Dunn, James D. G. “The New Perspective on Paul.” Pp. 183-214 in Jesus, Paul and the Law: Studies in Mark and Galatians. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990.
  • ———. The Theology of Paul the Apostle. New Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.
  • Harink, Douglas. Paul Among the Post-Liberals: Pauline Theology Beyonhd Christendom and Modernity. Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2003.
  • Hays, Richard B. Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul. New Haven: Yale, 1989.
  • Horsley, Richard, ed. Paul and Empire. Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press International, 1997.
  • Käsemann, E. “The Righteousness of God in Paul.” Pp. 168-82 in New Testament Questions of Today. 1960. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969.
  • Käsemann, Ernst. Perspectives on Paul. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971.
  • Knox, John. Chapters in a Life of Paul. Rev. ed. London: SCM, 1987.
  • Levine, Amy-Jill, and Marianne Blickenstaff, eds. A Feminist Companion to Paul. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2004.
  • Longenecker, Bruce, ed. Narrative Perspectives on the Pauline Gospel. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 2002.
  • Martyn, J. Louis. Theological Issues in the Letters of Paul. SNTW. Edinburgh/Nashville: T. & T. Clark/Abingdon, 1997.
  • Meeks, Wayne A. The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Meggitt, Justin J. Paul, Poverty and Survival. Studies of the New Testament and Its World. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998.
  • Schweitzer, Albert. The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle. 1931. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.
  • Stendahl, Krister. Paul Among Jews and Gentiles and Other Essays. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976.
  • Wright, N. T. The Climax of the Covenant: Christ and Law in Pauline Theology. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1991.

Catholic Epistles and Revelation

  • Bauckham, Richard. The Theology of the Book of Revelation. New Testament Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Bauckham, Richard J. Jude, 2 Peter. WBC 40. Waco TXC: Word, 1983.
  • Caird, George B. A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine. 2nd ed. Black’s New Testament Commentaries. London: Black, 1984.
  • Collins, John J. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.
  • Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Letter of James: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB 37A. New York: Doubleday, 1995.
  • Koester, Craig R. Hebrews. AB 36. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
  • Schüssler Fiorenza, Elizabeth. The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
  • Wall, Robert. “Introduction to Epistolary Literature.” Pp. 369-91 in The New Interpreter’s Bible. Edited by L. E. Keck. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002.

New Testament Theology

  • Bultmann, R. Theology of the New Testament. 2 vols. in 1. New York: Scribners, 1951-55.
  • Childs, Brevard S. Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on the Christian Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.
  • Gabler, Johann Philipp. “On the Proper Distinction Between Biblical and Dogmatic Theology.” Scottish Journal of Theology 33 (1980): 133-58.
  • Morgan, Robert. “Theology (NT).” Pp. 6.473-83 in Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992.
  • Schlatter, Adolf. “The Theology of the New Testament and Dogmatics.” Pp. 117-66 in The Nature of New Testament Theology. Edited by Robert Morgan. Naperville IL: Alec R. Allenson, 1973.
  • Wrede, William. “The Task and Methods of ‘New Testament Theology’.” Pp. 68-116 in The Nature of New Testament Theology. Edited by Robert Morgan. Naperville IL: Alec R. Allenson, 1973.

Text and Canon

  • Childs, Brevard S. “Excursus I. The Hermeneutical Problem in New Testament Text Criticism.” Pp. 518-30 in The New Testament as Canon: An Introduction. Valley Forge PA: Trinity Press, 1994.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Gamble, Harry Y. “Canon, New Testament.” Pp. 1.852-61 in Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  • Gese, Harmut. “The Biblical View of Scripture.” Pp. 9-33 in Essays on Biblical Theology. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1981.
  • Holmes, Michael W. “Reasoned Eclecticism in New Testament Textual Criticism.” Pp. 336-60 in The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on The Status Quaestionis. Edited by Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes. Studies and Documents. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.
  • Metzger, B. M. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968. 2nd ed.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
  • Westcott, B. F., and F. J. A. Hort. Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek with Notes on Selected Readings. 1882. Peabody MA: Hendrickson, 1988.

Greco-Roman Environment

  • Carcopino, Jérôme. Daily Life in Ancient Rome: The People and the City at the Height of the Empire. London: Routledge, 1941.
  • Klauck, H.-J. The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religions. SNTW. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2000.
  • MacMullen, R. Paganism in the Roman Empire. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1981.
  • Malherbe, Abraham J., ed. Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986.
  • Meeks, Wayne A. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • Millar, F. The Roman Near East 31 BC-AD 337. Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Millar, Fergus. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 BC – AD 337). Ithaca NC: Cornell University Press, 1977.
  • Nock, Arthur Darby. Conversion: The Old and the New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1933.
  • Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. New York: Schocken Books, 1975.
  • Price, S. R. F. Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  • Stambaugh, John E., and David L. Balch. The New Testament in Its Social Environment. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986.
  • Zanker, Paul. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Jerome Lectures 16. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.

Jewish environment

  • Barclay, J. M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora from Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE). Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1996.
  • Boyarin, Daniel. “Introduction; the Close Call; Quo Vadis.” Pp. 1-66 in Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism. Figurae. Stanford University Press, 1999.
  • Cohen, S. J. D. “The Significance of Yavneh: Pharisees, Rabbis, and the End of Jewish Sectarianism.” HUCA 55 (1984): 27-53.
  • Collins, J. J. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity. New York: Crossroad, 1984.
  • Goodman, M. The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt Against Rome A.D. 66-70. Cambridge/New York/Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Grabbe, L. L. Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian. Vol. 2: The Roman Period. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.
  • Hengel, M. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine During the Early Hellenistic Period. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.
  • Ilan, T. Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.
  • Levine, L. I. The Ancient Synagogue: The First Thousand Years. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Moore, G. F. Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era. New York: Schocken, 1971 [orig. 1927-1930].
  • Neusner, J. From Politics to Piety: The Emergence of Pharisaic Judaism. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prenctice-Hall, 1973.
  • Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 2005.
  • Sanders, E. P. Judaism: Practice and Belief 63 BCE-66 CE. London/Philadelphia: SCM/Trinity Press International, 1992.
  • Schürer, E. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.-A.D. 135). Edited by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, and Martin Goodman. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973-87.
  • Schwartz, D. R. “Introduction.” Pp. 1-26 in Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity. WUNT 60. Tübingen: J.C.B.Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1992.
  • Schwartz, S. Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 B.C.E. to 640 C.E. Jews, Christians, and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World. Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001.

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