Gift of Tongues

Alternate Labels

  • Glossolalia
  • Speaking in Tongues
  • Tongues
  • Tongues, Gift of
  • Tongues, Speaking in

Key Passages

  • Acts 2:1-21
  • Acts 10:44-48, 11:15-17
  • Acts 19:5-7
  • 1 Corinthians 12:4-11, 28-31
  • 1 Corinthians 13:1
  • 1 Corinthians 14:1-40

Reading List

Bible Dictionaries

Major Treatments in Logos Books

Exegetical Dictionaries

  • γλῶσσα | The Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament
  • γλῶσσα | New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology
  • γλῶσσα | New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis
  • γλῶσσα | Theological Dictionary of the New Testament

Systematic Theologies

See also

Theological Journals

See also

Other resources not yet in Logos

  • Yongnan Jeon Ahn, “A Formulation of Pentecostal Hermeneutics and its Possible Implication for the Interpretation of Speaking in Tongues and Prophecy in 1 Cor. 12-14” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Nottingham: Nottingham University, 2002).
  • Benny C. Aker, “The Gift of Tongues in 1 Corinthians 14:1-5”, Paraclete 29:1 (1995), pp. 13-21.
  • Jimmy Allen, “The Corinthian Glosslolalia: The Historical Setting, an Exegetical Examination, and a Contemporary Restatement” (Unpublished Phd Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1967).
  • Robert Banks and Geoffrey Moon, “Speaking in Tongues: A Survey of New Testament Evidence”, Churchman 80:4 (1966), pp. 278-294.
  • D. L. Barnett and J. P. McGregor, Speaking in Other Tongues: A Scholarly Defense (Seattle: Community Chapel Publications, 1986).
  • Ronald E. Baxter, The Charismatic Gift of Tongues (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1981).
  • Francis Wright Beare, “Speaking with Tongues: A Critical Survey of the New Testament Evidence”, Journal of Biblical Literature 83:3 (1964), pp. 229-246.
  • Ernest Best, “The Interpretation of Tongues”, Scottish Journal of Theology 28:1 (1975), pp. 45-62.
  • Boyce W. Blackwelder, Thirty Errors of Modern Tongues Advocates (Anderson, Indiana: Warner Press, n.d.).
  • Harvey J. S. Blaney, “St. Paul’s Posture on Speaking in Unknown Tongues”, Wesleyan Theological Journal 8:1 (1973), pp. 52-60.
  • Malcolm R. Brubaker, ‘“The Tongues of Men”: A Survey of Contemporary Pentecostal Hermeneutics’ (paper presented at the Evangelical Theological Society Eastern Regional Meeting, Phoenixville, 1995).
  • David R. Bundrick, “Equal for Edification: A Response to “Biblical Glossolalia — Thesis 7” and its Critics”, Paraclete 29:1 (1995), pp. 1-12.
  • Nathan Busenitz, “Was Polycarp a Pentecostal? An Examination of the Patristic Evidence Regarding Tongue-Speaking with Subsequent Comparison to Modern Pentecostal Practice” (Unpublished MTh Thesis, Sun Valley, California: The Master’s Seminary, 2005).
  • B. Caldwell, “A Pastor’s Reaction to William Macdonald’s “Biblical Glossolalia””, Paraclete 29 (1995).
  • Charles W. Carter, “A Wesleyan View of the Spirit’s Gift of Tongues in the Book of Acts”, Wesleyan Theological Journal 4:1 (1969), pp. 39-68.
  • Mark J. Cartledge, “The Nature and Function of New Testament Glossolalia”, Evangelical Quarterly 72:2 (2000), pp. 135-150.
  • Mark J. Cartledge, “Tongues of the Spirit: An Empirical-Theological Study of Charismatic Glossolalia” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Cardiff: University of Wales, 2000).
  • Mark J. Cartledge, Charismatic Glossolalia: An Empirical Theological Study (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002).
  • Simon Chan, ‘The Language Game of Glossolalia, or Making Sense of the “Initial Evidence”,’ in Pentecostalism in Context: Essays in Honor of William W. Menzies, ed. Wonsuk Ma and Robert P. Menzies (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement, vol. 11; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), pp. 80-95.
  • Blaine Charette, ““Tongues as of Fire”: Judgment as a Function of Glossolalia in Luke’s Thought”, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 13:2 (2005), pp. 173-185.
  • Leonard J. Coppes, Whatever Happened to Biblical Tongues? (Phillipsburg: Pilgrim Publishing Company, 1977).
  • Ronald E. Cottle, ““Tongues Shall Cease””, Pneuma 1 (1979), pp. 43-49.
  • R. W. D. Coupe, “Christian Prophecy and Christian Glossolalia: Their Functions and Decline in the First Two Centuries” (Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Wales, 1983).
  • Stuart D. Currie, ““Speaking in Tongues”: Early Evidence Outside the New Testament Bearing on “Glossais Lalein””, Interpretation 19:3 (1965), pp. 274-294.
  • J. G. Davies, “Pentecost and Glossolalia”, Journal of Theological Studies 3:2 (1952), pp. 228-231.
  • Roli G. dela Cruz, “Salvation in Christ and Baptism in the Spirit: A Response to Robert Menzies, “Evidential Tongues: An Essay on Theological Method””, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 1:2 (1998), pp. 125-147.
  • Matthew Steven DeMoss, “Tongues as a “Sign” in 1 Corinthians 14:20-25” (Unpublished ThM Thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2000).
  • Murray W. Dempster, ‘Soundings in the Moral Significance of Glossolalia’ (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Pentecostal Studies, Church of God School of Theology, Cleveland, 1983).
  • Murray W. Dempster, “The Church’s Moral Witness: A Study of Glossolalia in Luke’s Theology of Acts”, Paraclete 23 (1989), p. 1.
  • Edward A. Engelbrecht, ““To Speak in a Tongue”: The Old Testament and Early Rabbinic Background of a Pauline Expression”, Concordia Journal 22:3 (1996), pp. 295-302.
  • Nils Ivar Johan Engelsen, “Glossolalia and Other Forms of Inspired Speech According to I Corinthians 12-14” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, New Haven: Yale University, 1970).
  • Anders Eriksson, ““Women Tongue Speakers, Be Silent”: A Reconstruction through Paul’s Rhetoric”, Biblical Interpretation 6:1 (1998), pp. 80-104.
  • Philip F. Esler, “Glossolalia and the Admission of Gentiles into the Early Christian Community”, Biblical Theology Bulletin 22:3 (1992), pp. 136-142.
  • Jenny Everts (Powers), “Tongues or Languages? Contextual Consistency in the Translation of Acts 2”, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 2:4 (1994), pp. 71-80.
  • Jenny Everts (Powers), “Missionary Tongues”, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 17 (2000), pp. 39-55.
  • D. William Faupel, “Glossolalia as a Foreign Language: An Investigation of the Early Twentieth-Century Pentecostal Claim”, Wesleyan Theological Journal 31:1 (1996), pp. 95-109.
  • Gordon D. Fee, “Tongues — Least of the Gifts? Some Exegetical Observations on 1 Corinthians 12-14”, Pneuma 2:1 (1980), pp. 3-14.
  • Gordon D. Fee, “Toward a Pauline Theology of Glossolalia”, Crux 31:1 (1995), pp. 22-31.
  • J. Massingberd Ford, “Toward a Theology of “Speaking in Tongues””, Theological Studies 32:1 (1971), pp. 3-29.
  • K. Neill Foster, ‘Glossolalia and the Ruark Procedure’ (paper presented at the Evangelical Theological Society, Jackson, 1996).
  • R. H. Fuller, “Tongues in the New Testament”, American Church Quarterly 3 (1963).
  • Homero Garcia-Cover, “The Gift of Tongues in the Bible” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Deerfield: Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1997).
  • Robert J. Gladstone, “Sign Language in the Assembly: How Are Tongues a Sign to the Unbeliever in 1 Cor 14:20-25”, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 2:2 (1999), pp. 177-193.
  • H. E. Gonsalvez, “The Theology and Psychology of Glossolalia” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Northwestern university, 1978).
  • R. W. Graves, “Tongues Shall Cease: A Critical Study of the Supposed Cessation of the Charismata”, Paraclete 17:4 (1983), pp. 20-28.
  • William M. Green, “Glossolalia in the Second Century”, Restoration Quarterly 16:3-4 (1973), pp. 231-239.
  • T. W. Harpur, “The Gift of Tongues and Interpretation”, Canadian Journal of Theology 12:3 (1966), pp. 164-171.
  • Roy A. Harrisville, “Speaking in Tongues — a Sign of Transcendence”, Dialog 13 (1974), pp. 11-18.
  • Roy A. Harrisville, “Speaking in Tongues: A Lexicographical Study”, Catholic Biblical Quarterly 38:1 (1976), pp. 35-48.
  • Mattie Elizabeth Hart, “Speaking in Tongues and Prophecy as Understood by Paul and at Corinth, with Reference to Early Christian Usage” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Durham 1975).
  • Jeffery Lynn Henderson, “A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Glossolalia in Corinth” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Evanston: Northwestern University, 1997).
  • Harold W. Hoehner, ‘The Purpose of Tongues in 1 Corinthians 14:20-25,’ in Walvoord: A Tribute, ed. Donald K. Campbell (Chicago: Moody Press, 1982), pp. 53-66.
  • Anthony A. Hoekema, What About Tongues Speaking? (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966).
  • L. Thomas Holdcroft, ‘Tongues and the Interpretation of Tongues,’ in Conference on the Holy Spirit Digest, Vol. 1, ed. Gwen Jones (Springfield: Gospel Publishing House, 1983).
  • Wade H. Horton, Glossolalia Phenomenon (Cleveland: Pathway Press, 2008).
  • Gerald Hovenden, Speaking in Tongues: The New Testament Evidence in Context (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement, vol. 22; London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002).
  • C. D. Isbell, “Glossolalia and Propheteialia: A Study of 1 Corinthians 14”, Wesleyan Theological Journal 10 (1975).
  • John F. Jansen, “Speaking in Tongues: As Viewed in First Corinthians and in Acts”, Austin Seminary Bulletin: Faculty Edition 83 (1967), p. 45.
  • Richard Jeppensen, “A Study of Tongues in 1 Corinthians 12-14” (Unpublished MA Thesis, Multnomah Graduate School of Ministry, 1988).
  • B. C. Johanson, “Tongues, a Sign for Unbelievers?: A Structural and Exegetical Study of I Corinthians XIV. 20-25”, New Testament Studies 25:2 (1979), pp. 180-203.
  • Luke Timothy Johnson, “Glossolalia and the Embarrassments of Experience”, Princeton Seminary Bulletin 18:2 (1997), pp. 113-134.
  • Charles Edwin Jones, ‘Tongues-Speaking and the Wesleyan-Holiness Quest for Assurance of Sanctification’ (1986).
  • K. Keene, “A Response to “Biblical Glossolalia — Thesis 7””, Paraclete 29 (1995).
  • Craig S. Keener, “Why Does Luke Use Tongues as a Sign of the Spirit’s Empowerment?”, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 15:2 (2007), pp. 177-184.
  • David E. Lanier, “With Stammering Lips and Another Tongue: 1 Cor 14:20-22 and Isa 28:11-12”, Criswell Theological Review 5:2 (1991), pp. 259-286.
  • Dale Larder, “The Significance of Tongues for Unbelievers: An Historical, Exegetical and Linguistic Study of 1 Corinthians 14:20-25” (Unpublished MA Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1984).
  • Jae Kee Lee, “The Nature and Purpose of New Testament Glossolalia” (Unpublished MTh Thesis, Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary, 1991).
  • Raymond K. Levang, “The Content of an Utterance in Tongues”, Paraclete 23 (1989), p. 14.
  • Frank D. Macchia, “Sighs Too Deep for Words: Toward a Theology of Glossolalia”, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 1:1 (1992), pp. 47-73.
  • Frank D. Macchia, “Tongues as a Sign: Towards a Sacramental Understanding of Pentecostal Experience”, Pneuma 15:1 (1993), pp. 61-76.
  • Frank D. Macchia, ‘Babel and the Tongues of Pentecost: Reversal or Fulfilment?,’ in Speaking in Tongues: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, ed. Mark J. Cartledge (Studies in Pentecostal and Charismatic Issues; Carlisle: Paternoster, 2006), pp. 34-51.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Glossolalia in the New Testament”, Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 7:2 (1964), pp. 59-68.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Theses One and Two”, Paraclete 27:1 (1993), pp. 1-7.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Thesis Three”, Paraclete 27:2 (1993), pp. 7-14.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Thesis Four”, Paraclete 27:3 (1993), pp. 32-43.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Thesis Five”, Paraclete 27:4 (1993), pp. 15-22.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Thesis Six”, Paraclete 28:1 (1994), pp. 23-26.
  • William G. MacDonald, “Biblical Glossolalia: Thesis Seven”, Paraclete 28:2 (1994), pp. 1-12.
  • Hudson F. Mackenzie, Natural Tongues: Exploring Acts and Corinthians (Hamilton: Walker Printers, n.d.).
  • Renton Maclachlan, Tongues Revisited: A Third Way (Porirua: Clearsight, 2000).
  • H. Newton Malony, “Review of “Tongues of the Spirit: A Study of Pentecostal Glossolalia and Related Phenomena” by Cyril G. Williams”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 21:1 (1982), pp. 95-96.
  • Keith T Marriner, “Toward a Theology of Glossolalia: A Comparative Analysis of Richard B. Gaffin, Jr., J. Rodman Williams, and D. A. Carson” (Unpublished ThM Thesis, Wake Forest, NC: Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2005).
  • Dale B. Martin, “Tongues of Angels and Other Status Indicators”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion 59:3 (1991), pp. 547-589.
  • Ira Jay Martin, “The Place of Significance of Glossolalia in the New Testament” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Boston: Boston University, 1942).
  • Ira Jay Martin, “Glossolalia in the Apostolic Church”, Journal of Biblical Literature 63:2 (1944), pp. 123-130.
  • Ira Jay Martin, Glossolalia in the Apostolic Church: A Survey of Tongues Speech (Berea: Berea College Press, 1960).
  • R. Clyde McCone, Culture and Controversy: An Investigation of the Tongues of Pentecost (Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1978).
  • Robert P. Menzies, “Evidential Tongues: An Essay on Theological Method”, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 1:2 (1998), pp. 111-123.
  • Robert P. Menzies, “Paul and the Universality of Tongues: A Response to Max Turner”, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 2:2 (1999), pp. 283-295.
  • Jimmy Allen Millikin, “The Corinthian Glossolalia: The Historical Setting, an Exegetical Examination, and a Contemporary Restatement” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Forth Worth: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1967).
  • Watson E. Mills, Glossolalia: A Bibliography (Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity, vol. 6; New York: E. Mellen Press, 1985).
  • Watson E. Mills, A TheologicalExegetical Approach to Glossolalia/ (Lanham: University Press of America, 1985).
  • Watson E. Mills, ‘Reconstruction and Reappraisal,’ in Speaking in Tongues, ed. Watson E. Mills (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986), p. 329.
  • Watson E. Mills, “Early Ecstatic Utterances and Glossolalia”, Perspectives in Religious Studies 24 (1997).
  • George T. Montague, “Baptism in the Spirit and Speaking in Tongues: A Biblical Appraisal”, Theology Digest 21:4 (1973), pp. 342-360.
  • George T. Montague, The Spirit and His Gifts: The Biblical Background of Spirit-Baptism, Tongue-Speaking, and Prophecy (New York: Paulist Press, 1974).
  • Mazie Nakhro, “The Relationship of the Purpose of Tongues in Acts 2 and 1 Corinthians 14:21-22” (Unpublished STM Thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1989).
  • William H. Ness, “Glossolalia in the New Testament”, Concordia Theological Monthly 32 (1961), pp. 221-223.
  • Timothy J Peck, ‘The Interpretation of Tongues in 1 Corinthians’ (paper presented at the Evangelical Theological Society, Far West Regional Meeting, 1989).
  • William Richardson, “Liturgical Order and Glossolalia in 1 Corinthians 14.26c-33a”, New Testament Studies 32:1 (1986), pp. 144-153.
  • Peter Roberts, “A Sign — Christian or Pagan?”, Expository Times 90 (1979), pp. 199-203.
  • C. F. Robertson, “The Nature of New Testament Glossolalia” (Unpublished ThD Thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1975).
  • O. Palmer Robertson, The Final Word: A Biblical Response to the Case for Tongues and Prophecy Today (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1993).
  • R. Ruble, “A Scriptural Evaluation of Tongues in Contemporary Theology” (Unpublished ThD Thesis, Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary, 1964).
  • David Rudd, “A Historical-Critical Study of Tongues and Prophecy at Corinth: The Possible Influence of the Dionysian Cult and Worship of Apollo (1 Cor 12-14)” (Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1988).
  • Lowell J. Satre, ‘Glossolalia in the New Testament,’ in Reports and Actions of the Second General Convention of the America Lutheran Church (1964).
  • Vincenzo Scippa, La Glossolalia Nel Nuovo Testamento: Ricerca Esegetica Secondo Il Metodo Storico-Critico E Analitico-Strutturale (Biblioteca Teologica Napoletana, vol. 1; Napoli: M. D’Auria, 1982).
  • Joop F. M. Smit, “Tongues and Prophecy: Deciphering 1 Cor 14,22”, Biblica 75:2 (1994), pp. 175-190.
  • B. L. Smith, “Tongues in the New Testament”, Churchman 87 (1973), pp. 283-288.
  • Charles Russell Smith, “Biblical Conclusions Concerning Tongues” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Grace Theological Seminary, 1970).
  • D. Moody Smith, “Glossolalia and Other Spiritual Gifts in a New Testament Perspective”, Interpretation 28:3 (1974), pp. 307-320.
  • Krister Stendahl, ‘Glossolalia and the Charismatic Movement,’ in God’s Christ and His People: Studies in Honour of Hils Alstrup Dahl, ed. J. Jervell and Wayne A. Meeks (Oslo: Univeritetsforlaget, 1977), pp. 122-131.
  • J. P. M. Sweet, “A Sign for Unbelievers: Paul’s Attitude to Glossolalia”, New Testament Studies 13 (1966), pp. 240-257.
  • Vinson Synan, ‘The Role of Tongues as Initial Evidence,’ in Spirit and Renewal: Essays in Honor of J. Rodman Williams, ed. Mark W. Wilson (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement, vol. 5; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994), pp. 67-82.
  • Charles H. Talbert, “Paul’s Understanding of the Holy Spirit: The Evidence of 1 Corinthians 12-14”, Perspectives in Religious Studies 11:4 (1984), pp. 95-108.
  • Anthony C. Thiselton, “The “Interpretation of Tongues”: A New Suggestion in the Light of Greek Usage in Philo and Josephus”, Journal of Theological Studies 30:1 (1979), pp. 15-36.
  • Simon Tugwell, “The Gift of Tongues in the New Testament”, Expository Times 84:5 (1973), pp. 137-140.
  • Max Turner, “Tongues: An Experience for All in the Pauline Churches?”, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 1:2 (1998), pp. 231-253.
  • Max Turner, ‘Early Christian Experience and Theology of “Tongues”,’ in Speaking in Tongues: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, ed. Mark J. Cartledge (Studies in Pentecostal and Charismatic Issues; Carlisle: Paternoster, 2006), pp. 1-33.
  • Donatus Udoette, “Prophecy and Tongues: The Pauline Theology of the Charismata for Service in the Church (1 Cor 14)” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1993).
  • Merrill F. Unger, New Testament Teaching on Tongues (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1971).
  • J. Roy Valencourt, “Paul’s Perspective on Glossolalia”, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Quarterly Review 105 (1993).
  • Bastian van Elderen, “Glossolalia in the New Testament”, Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 7:2 (1964), pp. 53-58.
  • Rick Walston, “The Manifestations of the Spirit in 1 Corinthians 12 with Special Emphasis Upon Tongues as Evidence” (Unpublished PhD Thesis, Potchefstroom: Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, 2000).
  • Gilbert B. Weaver, ‘“Tongues Shall Cease”: The Cessation of Tongues at the Completion of the New Testament Canon’.
  • A. J. M. Wedderburn, “Romans 8:26 — Towards a Theology of Glossolalia”, Scottish Journal of Theology 28:4 (1975), pp. 369-377.
  • Tom L. Wilkinson, “Tongues and Prophecy in Acts and 1st Corinthians”, Vox Reformata 31 (1978), pp. 1-20.
  • Cyril Glyndwr Williams, “Ecstaticism in Hebrew Prophecy and Christian Glossolalia”, Studies in Religion 3:4 (1974), pp. 320-338.
  • Cyril Glyndwr Williams, “Glossolalia as a Religious Phenomenon: “Tongues” at Corinth and Pentecost”, Religion 5:1 (1975), pp. 16-32.
  • Cyril Glyndwr Williams, Tongues of the Spirit: A Study of Pentecostal Glossolalia and Related Phenomena (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1981).
  • Clyde M. Woods, ‘Are Tongues for Today?’ (paper presented at the National Conference of the Evangelical Theological Society 1996).
  • Robert Zerhusen, “The Meaning of “Other Tongues” in Acts 2: An Alternative Suggestion” (Unpublished MTh Thesis, La Mirada: Talbot School of Theology, 1991).
  • Robert Zerhusen, “The Problem Tongues in 1 Cor 14: A Reexamination”, Biblical Theology Bulletin 27:4 (1997), pp. 139-152.


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